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Resources >> National Neuroimaging Facility
National neuroimaging facility, sponsored by the Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India, came into existence in the year of 2006.  The main purpose of this National Facility is to facilitate/support the cutting edge brain imaging research.  The facility is equipped with three state-of-the-art equipments such as,
  1. 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)Scanner
  2.  Electroencephalography (EEG)
  3. Evoked Response Potential Recording (ERP)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI):
MRI provides much greater contrast between the different soft tissues of the body compared to computed tomography (CT), making it especially useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular. Various imaging modalities also play important role providing crucial information which can aid to various diagnostic process. There are various imaging modalities, which are:
  1. MR Spectroscopy (MRS) which provides non-invasive neurochemical level estimations and enables clinical correlation.
  2. Functional MRI (fMRI) which, as the name suggests correlates functional (haemodynamics) activity with images of brain activation
The 3 Tesla Phillips whole body MRI scanner at our Facility is equipped with state-of-the-art hardware, software and data processing software required for each imaging modality.  The facility is being used for performing structural, metabolic (multinuclear, e.g. proton and phosphorous) and functional MRI. In addition to understanding brain function and clinical research, the center also is closely interacting with leading imaging centers within the country and across the globe.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is a test that measures and records the electrical activity of the brain. Special sensors are attached to the head and hooked by wires to a computer. The computer records brain's electrical activity on the screen or on paper as wavy lines. Certain conditions, such as epilepsy, dementia, consciousness and narcolepsy (sleeping disorder) can be studied by EEG.
Evoked Response Potential Recording (ERP) is an electrical potential recorded from the nervous system of a human or other animal following presentation of a stimulus. Evoked potential amplitudes tend to be low, ranging from less than a microvolt to several microvolts
The Neuroimaging and Neurospectroscopy laboratory at NBRC is working on metabolic analysis of different neurodegenerative disorders (e.g. Alzheimer, Parkinson etc) using MRS technique.  The clinical research is focused to identify biomarkers, quantitative stress measurement from age-matched normal person and diseased person. This is accomplished by applying novel MRS pulse sequences and signal processing scheme on those human subjects.  Figure 1 shows gradual decrease of glutathione molecule, an important anti-oxidant in the brain, with aging and in different clinical conditions.  This is the first report of quantitative measurement of oxidative stress using non-invasive state-of-the-art technique
Figure 1 GSH level in right frontal cortex in various cases: (A) healthy female (26Y old); (B) healthy female (56Y old); (C) MCI female (50Y old) and (D) Probable AD female patient (62Y old) using MEGA-PRESS pulse sequence in a 3T MRI scanner. The decrease of GSH content is indicated by red arrow.
The Speech and Language Laboratory (SALLY) Research in the Speech and Language. SALLY is focused on unraveling the cortical pathways involved in Hindi-English biscriptal adults and children (Figure 2).
Figure 2 shows how skilled readers using different cortical networks.
The Computational Neuroscience and Neuroimaging Laboratory works on diagnostic and therapeutic applications with a translational medicine aspect. The unit works on imaging-based diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease and pulsed radiotherapy and chemotherapy planning for brain tumour. In collaboration with clinical centres and medical institutes, the lab also pursues delineation of flow dynamics of blood, CSF and progenitor cells in brain, as well as localization of electrogenic focus in refractory epilepsy using EEG, ERP, fMRI, MRS and DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) (Figure 3).
Figure 3 (a) Structural MRI scan of brain with dysplsia in epileptic patient. (b) EEG recording of the brain using which enables one to obtain more accurate localization of the electrical foci (c) Diffusion tensor image (DTI) of the brain of epileptic patient from which the conductivity tensor image (CTI) of the brain is obtained, the latter image enables accurate localization of the electrogenic epileptic focus in brain tissue, based on the conductivity image obtained earlier.
 
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